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Guelph, Ontario.

The American Charles Raymond was originally from Vermont where he first produced the small New England style machine; after a brief stay in Montreal he established his factory in Guelph, Ontario in 1861, having moved there to allegedly escape patent lawsuits. His factory grew quite large producing different models of handcranks and treadles. Raymond sold his interests in the company in 1897 to his factory manager, J.G. Sully, and Christian Kloepfer (Raymond was suffering ill health) when the name of the company changed from the Charles Raymond Manufacturing Co. to the Raymond Manufacturing Co. (initials on the machines changed from CR to RM). White SM Co. of Cleveland bought out Raymond Co. in 1916 and continued to manufacture machines under the Raymond and White names until 1922 when the factory closed.

Pictures of the Raymond factory, courtesy of Helen Scarth

Pictures of the grave of Charles Raymond, courtesy of Helen Scarth


Chainstitch Machines

Courtesy of Claire Sherwell

This patent is for Raymond's 1858 sewing machine when he was residing in Brattleborough, VT and working for Willford H Nettleton: http://www.needlebar.org/cm~nb/thumbnails.php?album=899. It is a two thread chainstitch machine. Brattleborough was the home of Levi K Fuller and the Estey Sewing Machine and even Davis http://needlebar.org/cm~nb/thumbnails.php?album=270 patented his chainstitch machine in Brattleborough,VT.

This model of machine consisted of a particular way of moving the fabric and a new type of looper, formed in two pieces, the first of which passes through the loop and spreads it, then the second moves up and the needle takes the loop, and drops the first loop around the second.

The impression is often misleadingly implied that Charles Raymond didn't patent anything in the USA and fled instead to Canada to avoid patent law and paying royalties to the Combination. In fact he held several patents in his own right and with others in the USA. This patent was issued March, 9 1858 for a chainstitch sewing machine when he was residing in Bristol, Conn. and working for Willford H Nettleton who was in the same place at that time. They are both also connected with Brattleborough, VT, the home of Levi K Fuller and the Estey Sewing Machine and Davis patented his chainstitch machine in Brattleborough,VT.

July 30, 1861 while in Brattleborough, Vermont. This was for a novel mode of applying and supporting an oscillating looper, and in a novel mode of adjusting the same for correct operation in combination with the needle.

Courtesy of Jennifer Hill

Raymond New England. The chainstitch model was introduced in 1861. See also Weir and New England albums.

Courtesy of Marco Trapp

This machine was sold by Louis Beckh in Mannheim/Germany, stamped on the leaf spring for the presser foot. Louis Beckh seems to have sold many Raymond New England chainstitch machines. The US patent date of July 30, 1861 is stamped on the stitch plate.

Courtesy of Claire Sherwell

1882. Raymond sold machines in England through P. Frank, whose chief depot for Europe and export was 11 Mount Pleasant, Liverpool at this time. In 1882 they were advertising for more agents. Originally Raymond had used J. G. Weir as agent for the UK until they had disagreements. See also Weir (under British) and New England Types (under America).

Courtesy of Claire Sherwell

1883. The French agent who sold these machines was Petit & Arcencam who also sold Wheeler & Wilson machines.

Courtesy of Daveofsuffolk

The Globe. The machine was supplied by J G Weir, 2 Carlisle Street, Soho Square, London. Weir fell out with Raymond - see the advert and other Weir machine examples in the British Weir album. This is the original shipping box.


Courtesy of Claire Sherwell

Last patent date of 18th April 1872. The iron "boot" under the stitch plate is removable, it was used to add weight and stability to the machine. The main differences between this early one and the other example are the orientation of the tension rod (horizontal vs vertical) and the bobbin winder. The retailer's badge says R Watt & Co., Plymouth.

Courtesy of Jennifer Hill

This model was introduced in the early 1870s, but the bobbin winder shown here features a last patent date of 1880. There was an earlier variant of this model. The main difference detected (from photos only) is the tension rod. The earlier one is horizontal, while this one is vertical. (Note: There are early and later versions of Raymond #1s who also sport a similar tension evolution). Charles Raymond filed his bobbin winder patent on April 27, 1880 and it was granted on March 22, 1881 in the US. It was to be used on both the Household and No. 1 models of the time. Note the vertical tension rods of the time.

No. 1

Serial #1262 (with the number 3 stamped below the other four digits)

Courtesy of Rob Connolly

Serial #7051 (on all the parts)

Courtesy of SewBee

This appears to be an early, smaller model No. 1. Simple, high mounted bobbin winder, horizontal tension rod, four spokes to hand wheel, hand decorated. Doesn't have No. 1 on arm. Compare the distance in the center of the bed with other models. The machine measures 7.5 inches from needle plate to where the hand wheel attaches (the body of the machine) and 1.75 inches at its widest part. The base itself is 11.9 inches left to right and 6.75 inches across the widest circle in the bed. It stands just under 6 inches tall at the needle side and 5.5 inches at the shank side.

Courtesy of Kelly Pakes &

Serial #

High bobbin winder, horizontal tension rod.

Courtesy of Helen Scarth

No. 1 on arm. The machine has the high mounted, simple bobbin winder with a horizontal tension rod (no tension adjustment on top of the face plate area).

Serial #40029 on the slide plate (4003 on the needle bar and 40039 on the presser bar)

Courtesy of Jennifer Hill

c1880. No. 1 on arm. New style high mounted bobbin winder, vertical tension rod.

Courtesy of Claire Sherwell

No. 1 on arm. New style high mounted bobbin winder, vertical tension rod.

Raymond VS

Serial #136501, has an "M" on the left side of plate with the serial number

Courtesy of Jai

Back slide plate says "Raymond Mfg. Co. of Guelph Limited". High mounted bobbin winder.

Courtesy of Claire Sherwell, from the Harry Berzack Museum

High mounted bobbin winder. Raymond Mfg Co Ltd, Guelph, Canada.

Serial #157130

Courtesy of Jennifer Hill

Low mounted bobbin winder. This is the last model produced by the Raymond Manufacturing Company before they sold out to White in 1916. These machines show up quite frequently all over Canada, while the earlier models rarely show up outside of southern Ontario (except on eBay).

Serial #510588

Courtesy of Stevie Greenman

This model was designed and produced by Raymond. It has a low bobbin winder and also a much modernized upper tension from its previous incarnation. The machine uses a hollow bobbin. The W on the front inspection plate is because the machine was manufactured after 1916 when the White Sewing Machine Company from Cleveland, Ohio took over Raymond.

The style shuttle carrier confirms the machine as being a Raymond. The machine with cabinet, was manufactured between 1916 and 1922. The machine has a long rear inspection plate, takes top mounting feet and has a raised platform under the left hand spoon pin.